One of the most interesting and diverse groups of organisms on our planet is the fungus. Fungi, which include between 2.2 and 3.8 million different species, can be found in both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Yeasts are an example of a single-celled fungus, while filamentous fungi and mushrooms are multicellular.

One of the seven phyla of fungi, Basidiomycota, is primarily made up of species of mushrooms and truffles. There are thought to be 140,000 different species of mushrooms, but only a small portion of them have been taxonomically identified. A fruiting body with a cap supported by a stem, a thin membrane known as a vellum, and lamellae where basidiospores are generated make up the distinctive morphology of mushrooms.

Certain circumstances are needed for mushroom cultivation, including consistent humidity, a cool environment, ventilation, exposure to light, and the right kind of substrate. The morphology and nutritional value of mushrooms are directly related to variations in environmental circumstances. Popular edible mushrooms like P. ostreatus, for instance, are said to produce better in temperate environments than in tropical ones where high temperatures are a growth constraint. However, other experiments revealed that the same species' optimal temperature range between 24 and 32 °C resulted in greater mycelium growth.

Another barrier to the economic appeal of mushrooms and the preservation of their nutritional value is post-harvest processing. At room temperature, a reduced shelf life is seen, although it can be extended with lower temperatures and humidity management. In situations where climatic changes and deforestation have a significant impact, temperature volatility leads to the extinction of mushrooms. In order to provide production and lower any potential hazards to food security, this scenario has called for a more sustainable mushroom production system.

Cultured mushrooms have been characterized, but they consist of only a small group of commercialized species. The nutritional value of many wild mushrooms is still not well-studied, even though they are used as food and as alternative medicines by different cultures. Characterization of edible potential and morphology of wild species is an urge, considering the risk in promoting the use of potentially toxic wild mushrooms. The world of fungi is diverse and fascinating, with mushroom cultivation being one of the most important applications of fungi.

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